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Cadbury Invents Melt-Resistant Chocolate

Cadbury Invents Melt-Resistant Chocolate

New high-temperature chocolates won't be sold in the U.K.

Cadbury is on the cutting edge of chocolate technology. The chocolate scientists (that’s scientists who work on chocolate, not little scientists made of chocolate, which also sounds like a good idea) at its U.K. research facility say they’ve invented a new kind of chocolate bar that won’t melt in hot weather, even if left outside in 104-degree weather for several hours.

The Times of India reports that the temperature-tolerant chocolate is designed for distribution in hot countries like India and Brazil, though chocolate experts told the paper that the new chocolate does not taste quite as good as regular chocolate.

Making the chocolate resistant to melting also has the unfortunate side effect of damaging that melt-in-your-mouth texture that’s so appealing in good chocolate.

But according to The Telegraph, some U.K. citizens were upset to hear that the new chocolate won’t be available to the sticky-fingered children of the U.K.

Tony Bilsborough, head of corporate affairs at Kraft Foods, which owns Cadbury, said there are no plans to sell the new chocolate in the U.K., where heat-damaged chocolate is rarely a problem and everybody already has access to the better-tasting regular Cadbury bars.

“This simply would not sell,” he said.

Like some Willy Wonka wonderland dream, an Irish teenager has invented a new Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate bar, Choca-latte, at the famous chocolatier's HQ.

Callum Clogher's invention will become the latest addition to join the iconic Cadbury Dairy Milk range after winning a public vote that put him head to head against two other finalists. The intense and delicious winning flavour will now sit alongside iconic bars such as Caramel, Fruit & Nut and Whole Nut on supermarket shelves across Ireland and the United Kingdom from September.

Clogher, a 17-year-old student from County Roscommon, created Cadbury Dairy MilkChoca-latte off the back of his love for coffee and chocolate and was able to bring to life this unique bar along with the Cadbury Research & Development team in Bournville, as Cadbury opened its doors to its fans for the first time.

The winning bar consists of a delicious mix of coffee cream and vanilla sandwiched in between the smooth taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk.

Speaking about the experience, Callum said "I am delighted to be the winner of the first Cadbury Inventor competition with my bar Choca-Latte! The whole experience has been brilliant from visiting Bournville, seeing my bar in shops and even seeing my face on posters all around Ireland, it has been completely surreal."

Fancy having a go and becoming the next chocolate inventor? For the second year running, Cadbury is calling upon the nation to ‘go madbury for Cadbury’. From today, chocolate fans will have the chance to create their very own Cadbury Dairy Milk bar, which could become the newest addition to the iconic Cadbury Dairy Milk family.

Chocolate lovers can pick from a range of tasty and unusual ingredients! From gooey brownie, crazy popping candy, spicy chilli and even edible glitter to classic ingredients of raspberries, raisins and almonds. There’s over a whopping 90,000 different available combinations to choose from and once the ingredients are selected entrants will be able to name their bar and explain what inspired their creation before submitting their entry.

Maighréad Lynch, Brand Manager at Cadbury, says: “We are very excited to reveal Callum as the winner of our first-ever Cadbury Inventor Competition. His creation was both innovative and delicious and just goes to show what can be created when our fans go madbury for Cadbury.

We are thrilled to now also be re-launching the Cadbury Inventor Competition for a second year and seeing what other delicious creations our fans come up with. With so many ingredients to choose from, chocolate lovers across the country are sure to be spoilt for choice and we look forward to seeing the imagination of our fans shine through.”

All entries will be put through a rigorous judging process with the finalists being selected based on two very important elements: taste and creativity. Three lucky finalists will be shortlisted at the end of September and given the chance to visit the Cadbury Chocolate Centre of Excellence in Bournville, the home of Cadbury, where they will work with chocolate experts to experiment with their ingredients and make their creations a reality. The three shortlisted bars will be made available nationwide for chocolate fans to sample in 2020 and vote for their favourite.


The Cadbury family founded their chocolate company in 1824 in Birmingham and later became among the first in the UK to sell milk chocolate that everyone could enjoy.




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Non-Melting Chocolate Invented By Cadbury Stays Solid In 104 Degree Heat

The days of candy bars melting under a hot sun may soon be behind us. Cadbury recently announced it has developed a variety of melt-resistant chocolate that remains solid even after more than three hours at 104 degrees Fahrenheit.

The "temperature-tolerant chocolates" will soon be available in some countries dogged by sweltering temperatures, like India and Brazil. Conventional chocolate, in contrast, melts at about 93.2 degrees Fahrenheit.

In its official patent application, Cadbury states that it achieved the unique property by "refining the conched chocolate after the conching step." Conching is a process in mass-market chocolate production in which a container is filled with metal beads that grind the ingredients such as cocoa butter, vegetable oils, milk and sugar.

The Daily Mail explains that during the process, sugar particles are broken down into smaller pieces. This minimizes the amount of fat that covers them, which makes the bar less susceptible to heat.

The chocolate will not be sold in the U.K., but has caused a stir there nonetheless. Cadbury was founded in the U.K. and enjoys considerable popularity there despite being bought up by U.S. firm Kraft in 2010. Conservative member of Parliament Robert Halfon voiced his concern that the company is "[giving] the best of British to people overseas."

Head of corporate affairs at Kraft Foods, Tony Bilsborough, waved off such dissent and explained that it was a matter of business sense -- the product "simply would not sell" in the British market.

"To be honest I don't think any chocoholics would welcome this recipe because it would not taste as good as Dairy Milk," he concluded.

Heat-resistant Chocolate

We have all tried buying chocolate on a hot day, only to pull it out of your bag later and find it melted. This problem could now be a thing of the past, at least for some parts of the world.

After almost 10 years of meticulous research, the manufacturers of Cadbury and Toblerone chocolates are claiming they are now nearing launching of a heat-resistant chocolate to the world.

The top chocolate, biscuit and candy company, Mondelez International told Reuters that the product they will be introducing in the near future is able to endure temperatures as high as 104F and not melt.

This heat-resistant chocolate is particularly intended for places that have hot/humid climate such as India, Brazil, and Africa, where food products end up falling victim to the scorching heat of the sun.

They weren’t letting people in on the details about ingredients and taste just yet. However, according to a company executive for the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe, the products will be launched very soon.

Other brands within the Mondelez International portfolio include Cote d'Or, Milka, Green & Black's chocolates, Trident and Dentyne gum and Nabisco.

While it may seem new to many, it’s actually not the first attempt at creating a more durable chocolate product. Premium Swiss chocolate maker Barry Callebaut launched the Volcano before, the chocolate that has a higher melting point - 98.6F. This is because of a lower cocoa butter content.

The natural melting point for chocolate is between 86F and 93.2F, lower than human body temperature.

Will there be a difference in taste? Well, coming up with a heat-resitant chocolate that can endure up to 40 degrees celius sans melting has reportedly entailed putting in combinations of cocoa butter, milk, sugar and vegetable oils. That said, yup, there will be a noticeable change in taste.

Cadbury and the chocolate that doesn’t melt

In true Willy Wonka style, confectioner Cadbury invents a new chocolate that melts at a higher temperature, designed for chocolate lovers in hot climates. But will it pass the taste test?

Scientists at Cadbury’s research and development plant in Bourneville have created a new chocolate bar that stays completely solid even when exposed to temperatures of 40 degree Celsius for more than three hours.

Cadbury engineers have set out the method for making breakthrough “temperature-tolerant chocolate” in an 8,000-word patent application.

While standard chocolate has a melting point of 34 degrees Celsius, the new bars are ideal for warmer weather. The new recipe will be available in hot countries, likely to include India and Brazil.

The secret to the new bars is a change in the so-called “conching step” – where a container filled with metal beads grinds the ingredients, which usually include cocoa butter, vegetable oils, milk and sugar.

Cadbury has developed a way of breaking down sugar particles into smaller pieces, reducing how much fat covers them and making the bar more resistant to heat. “We have found that it is possible to instill temperature-tolerant properties by refining the conched chocolate after the conching step,” Cadbury said in its patent application.

“Production of temperature-tolerant chocolate would allow production of chocolate-containing product more suitable for hot climates, particularly in less economically developed countries where the supply chain is ill-equipped to handle temperature fluctuations,” it said.

However, professional chocolatiers are unimpressed with Cadbury’s new invention, claiming it would not taste as good as the original “melt in the mouth” chocolate.

The company admitted that the new bars would not have the same quality as normal chocolates – but it still prove a welcome addition to the menu in some countries.


1800–1900: Early history Edit

In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea, coffee and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. [8] [9] From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. [10] In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers". [10] In 1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar (which would be mass-produced as Fry's Chocolate Cream in 1866). [11] Cadbury introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849, and that same year, Cadbury and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham. [12] The Cadbury brothers opened an office in London, and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. [5] The company went into decline in the late 1850s. [10]

John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. [9] At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, and the company was losing money. [9] By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again. [9] The brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, and by increasing the quality of their products. [9]

The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. [10] A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean. [10] The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. [10] [13] In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in 1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day. [11] Boxes of filled chocolates quickly became associated with the holiday. [11]

Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could be moulded into smooth shapes. [14] By 1893, Cadbury had 19 different varieties of chocolate Easter egg on sale. [14]

In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham. [9] The move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. [9] Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would 'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate. [9]

In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. [15] In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company. [15]

1900–1969 Edit

In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. [10] Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. [15] From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper. [15] It was a great sales success, and became the company's best selling product by 1914. [10] The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. [10] Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. [10] In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. [15]

Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces, and to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate, books and clothing to the troops. [16] George Cadbury handed over two company-owned buildings for use as hospitals – "The Beeches" and "Fircroft", and the management of both hospitals earned the War Office's highest award. [16] Factory girls, dubbed 'The Cadbury Angels', volunteered to do the laundry of injured soldiers recovering in the hospitals. [16] After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania.

In 1919, Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons, another leading British chocolate manufacturer, resulting in the integration of well-known brands such as Fry's Chocolate Cream and Fry's Turkish Delight. [10] In 1921, the many small Fry's factories around Bristol were closed down, and production was consolidated at a new Somerdale Factory, outside Bristol. [15]

Cadbury expanded its product range with Flake (1920), Creme eggs (1923), Fruit and Nut (1928), and Crunchie (1929, originally under the Fry's label). By 1930, Cadbury was the 24th-largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital. [10] Cadbury took direct control of the under-performing Fry in 1935. [15] Dairy Milk Whole Nut arrived in 1933, and tins of Roses were introduced in 1938. [17] Roses has become a very popular Christmas (and Mother's Day) gift. [18]

Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time. [15] By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of the British population could afford to buy chocolate. [19] By 1936, Dairy Milk accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market. [15]

During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products. [20] In 1952 the Moreton factory was built. [21]

Cadbury has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II since 1955. [5] In 1967, Cadbury acquired an Australian confectioner, MacRobertson's, beating a rival bid from Mars. [22] As a result of the takeover, Cadbury built a 60 percent market share in the Australian market. [22]

Schweppes merger (1969) Edit

Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969. [23] Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson, became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy chairman and managing director. [23] The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive. [24]

The merger put an end to Cadbury's close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venturer philosophy in management. [25]

In 1978, the company acquired Peter Paul, the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it a 10 percent share of the world's largest confectionery market. [26] The highly successful Wispa chocolate bar was launched in the North East of England in 1981, and nationwide in 1984. [27] In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for the first time. [24]

In 1986, Cadbury Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97 million. [28] This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Smash and Hartley Chivers jam. [28] The deal also saw Premier take the licence for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate. [28]

Meanwhile, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-Cola Schweppes. [28] The acquisition of Canada Dry doubled its worldwide drinks market share, and it took a 30 percent stake in Dr Pepper. [28] As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world. [28] In August 1988, the company sold its U.S. confectionery operations to Hershey's for $284.5 million cash plus the assumption of $30 million in debt. [29]

In 1999, Cadbury Schweppes sold its worldwide beverage businesses to The Coca-Cola Company except in North America and continental Europe for $700 million. [30]

Snapple, Mistic and Stewart's (formerly Cable Car Beverage) were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45 billion. [31] In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc. [32] In 2003, Cadbury Schweppes acquired Adams, the US chewing gum operations of Pfizer Inc., for $4.2 billion, making Cadbury the world's biggest confectionery company. [33] In 2005, Cadbury Schweppes acquired Green & Black's for £20 million. [34]

Schweppes demerger Edit

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market the other on its US drinks business. [35] The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr Pepper Snapple Group and Cadbury Schweppes plc becoming Cadbury plc. [36] In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries. [37]

2007–2010 Edit

In October 2007, Cadbury announced the closure of the Somerdale Factory, in Keynsham, Somerset, formerly part of Fry's. Between 500 and 700 jobs were affected by this change. Production transferred to other plants in England and Poland. [38]

In 2008, Monkhill Confectionery, the Own Label trading division of Cadbury Trebor Bassett was sold to Tangerine Confectionery for £58 million cash. This sale included factories at Pontefract, Cleckheaton and York and a distribution centre near Chesterfield, and the transfer of around 800 employees. [39]

In mid-2009, Cadbury replaced some of the cocoa butter in their non-UK chocolate products with palm oil. Despite stating this was a response to consumer demand to improve taste and texture, there was no "new improved recipe" claim placed on New Zealand labels. Consumer backlash was significant from environmentalists and chocolate lovers in both Australia and New Zealand, with consumers objecting to both the taste from the cheaper formulation, and the use of palm oil given its role in the destruction of rainforests. By August 2009, the company announced that it was reverting to the use of cocoa butter in New Zealand and Australia, although palm oil is still listed as an ingredient in Cadbury's flavoured sugar syrup based fillings (where it referred to as 'vegetable oil'). [40] In addition, Cadbury stated they would source cocoa beans through Fair Trade channels. [41] In January 2010 prospective buyer Kraft pledged to honour Cadbury's commitment. [42]

Acquisition and subsidiary (2009-) Edit

On 7 September 2009, Kraft Foods made a £10.2 billion (US$16.2 billion) indicative takeover bid for Cadbury. The offer was rejected, with Cadbury stating that it undervalued the company. [43] Kraft launched a formal, hostile bid for Cadbury, valuing the firm at £9.8 billion on 9 November 2009. [44] The UK Business Secretary Peter Mandelson warned Kraft not to try to "make a quick buck" from the acquisition of Cadbury. [45]

On 19 January 2010, it was announced that Cadbury and Kraft Foods had reached a deal and that Kraft would purchase Cadbury for £8.40 per share, valuing Cadbury at £11.5bn (US$18.9bn). Kraft, which issued a statement stating that the deal will create a "global confectionery leader", had to borrow £7 billion (US$11.5bn) in order to finance the takeover. [46]

The Hershey Company, based in Pennsylvania, manufactures and distributes Cadbury-branded chocolate (but not its other confectionery) in the United States and has been reported to share Cadbury's "ethos". [47] Hershey had expressed an interest in buying Cadbury because it would broaden its access to faster-growing international markets. [48] But on 22 January 2010, Hershey announced that it would not counter Kraft's final offer. [49] [50] [51]

The acquisition of Cadbury faced widespread disapproval from the British public, as well as groups and organisations including trade union Unite, [52] who fought against the acquisition of the company which, according to Prime Minister Gordon Brown, was very important to the British economy. [53] Unite estimated that a takeover by Kraft could put 30,000 jobs "at risk", [47] [54] [55] and UK shareholders protested over the mergers and acquisitions advisory fees charged by banks. Cadbury's M&A advisers were UBS, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley. [56] [57] [58] Controversially, RBS, a bank 84% owned by the United Kingdom Government, funded the Kraft takeover. [59] [60]

On 2 February 2010, Kraft secured over 71% of Cadbury's shares thus finalising the deal. [61] Kraft had needed to reach 75% of the shares in order to be able to delist Cadbury from the stock market and fully integrate it as part of Kraft. This was achieved on 5 February, and the company announced that Cadbury shares would be de-listed on 8 March. [62] On 3 February, the Chairman Roger Carr, chief executive Todd Stitzer and chief financial officer Andrew Bonfield [63] all announced their resignations. Stitzer had worked at the company for 27 years. [64] On 9 February, Kraft announced that they were planning to close the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham, with the loss of 400 jobs. [65] The management explained that existing plans to move production to Poland were too advanced to be realistically reversed, though assurances had been given regarding sustaining the plant. Staff at Keynsham criticised this move, suggesting that they felt betrayed and as if they have been "sacked twice". [66] On 22 April 2010, Phil Rumbol, the man behind the famous Cadbury Gorilla advertisement, announced his plans to leave the Cadbury company in July following Kraft's takeover. [67]

The European Commission decided that Kraft would have to divest Cadbury's confectionery businesses in Poland (Wedel) and Romania (Kandia). In June 2010, the Polish division, Cadbury-Wedel, was sold to Lotte of Korea. As part of the deal Kraft kept the Cadbury, Hall's and other brands along with two plants in Skarbimierz. Lotte took over the plant in Warsaw along with the E Wedel brand. [68] Kandia was sold back to the Meinl family, which had owned the brand from 2003 to 2007. [69]

On 4 August 2011, Kraft Foods announced they would be splitting into two companies beginning on 1 October 2012. The confectionery business of Kraft became Mondelez International, of which Cadbury would become a subsidiary. [70] [71]

In response to diminishing margins in early 2014, Mondelez hired Accenture to implement a US$3 billion cost-cutting programme of the company's assets including Cadbury and Oreo. Beginning in 2015, Mondelez began closing Cadbury factories in several developed countries including Ireland, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand and shifting production to "advantaged" country locations like China, India, Brazil, and Mexico. The closure of Cadbury factories in centres such as Dublin, Montreal, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Dunedin in New Zealand generated outcries from the local populations. The plan received approval from several market shareholders including the Australian and New Zealand banks Westpac and ASB Bank. [72] [73] [74]

In January 2017, Cadbury became the official snack partner of the Premier League, and sponsored the Premier League Golden Boot and Premier League Golden Glove awards. [75]

Head office Edit

Cadbury has its head office at Cadbury House in the Uxbridge Business Park in Uxbridge, London Borough of Hillingdon, England. [76] The company occupies 84,000 square feet (7,800 m 2 ) of leased space inside Building 3 of the business park, [77] which it shares with Mondelez's UK division. [78] After acquiring Cadbury, Kraft confirmed that the company would remain at Cadbury House. [79]

Cadbury relocated to Uxbridge from its previous head office at 25 Berkeley Square in Mayfair, City of Westminster in 2007 as a cost-saving measure. [80] [81] In 1992, the company leased the space for £55 per 1 square foot (0.093 m 2 ) [77] by 2002 this had reached £68.75 per square foot. [80]

Production sites Edit

Bournville Edit

Located four miles south of Birmingham, England, the Cadbury plant in Bournville was opened in 1879 by company founder John Cadbury's son George, whose aim was that one-tenth of the Bournville estate should be "laid out and used as parks, recreation grounds and open space." It subsequently became known as "the factory in a garden". [82] Cadbury's dark chocolate bar, Bournville, is named after the model village, and was first sold in 1908. [83]

Bournville employs almost 1,000 people. [84] In 2014, Mondelez announced a £75 million investment in the site, [84] with Cadbury stating it “reinforces Bournville's position at the heart of the British chocolate industry”. [85]

Bournville is home to Mondelez's Global Centre of Excellence for Chocolate research and development, so every new chocolate product created by Cadbury starts life at the Birmingham plant. [84]

United Kingdom Edit

The confectionery business in the UK is called Cadbury (formerly Cadbury Trebor Bassett) and, as of August 2004, had eight factories and 3,000 staff in the UK. Mondelez also sells biscuits bearing the Cadbury brand, such as Cadbury Fingers. Cadbury also owns Trebor Bassett, Fry's and Maynards.

Ice cream based on Cadbury products, like 99 Flake, is made under licence by Frederick's Dairies. Cadbury cakes and chocolate spread are manufactured under licence by Premier Foods, but the cakes were originally part of Cadbury Foods Ltd with factories at Blackpole in Worcester and Moreton on the Wirral, with distribution depots throughout the UK.

Other Kraft subsidiaries in the UK include Cadbury Two LLP, Cadbury UK Holdings Limited, Cadbury US Holdings Limited, Cadbury Four LLP, Cadbury Holdings Limited, and Cadbury One LLP.

Ireland Edit

Cadbury Ireland Limited is based in Coolock in Dublin, where the headquarters of Cadbury Ireland are located, and Tallaght. The third is in Rathmore, County Kerry. Products made by Cadbury in Ireland include Cadbury Dairy Milk Range, Cadbury Twirl, Cadbury Cadbury Snacks Range Flake and Boost (formerly Moro). Cadbury used to produce the Time Out bar in Ireland for the European market however this production was moved to Poland. [86]

United States Edit

Cadbury Adams
FoundedDecember 2002
HeadquartersParsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey, United States
ProductsTrident, Certs, Chiclets, Halls (cough drop)
OwnersMondelez International
Website us .mondelezinternational .com
Footnotes / references
Cadbury USA (chocolate)
ManufacturerHershey (licensee)
ProductsCadbury Creme Egg, Cadbury Dairy Milk, Mini Eggs
Website cadburyusa .com

Cadbury Adams produces candy, gum, breath mints and cough drops. It is headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey. The company was formed after the then Cadbury Schweppes purchased the Adams brand from Pfizer in December 2002 for US$4.2 billion.

American Chicle was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1962 Warner-Lambert renamed the unit Adams in 1997 and merged with Pfizer in 2000.

In 1978, Cadbury merged with Peter Paul, makers of Mounds and Almond Joy. [87] In 1988, The Hershey Company acquired the U.S. rights to their chocolate business. Accordingly, although the Cadbury group's chocolate products have been sold in the U.S. since 1988, the products are manufactured by Hershey, causing complaints by consumers, who claim they are inferior to the originals. [88] Before the May 2008 demerger, the North American business also contained beverage unit Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages. In 1982, Cadbury Schweppes purchased the Duffy-Mott Company. [89]

Cadbury Adams' products include:

  • Maynards
      (original and Sour)
  • Juicy Squirts (Sours, Citrus, and Berry)
  • Original Gummies
  • Fuzzy Peach
  • Sour Chillers
  • Mini Fruit Gums
  • Sour Cherry Blasters
  • Fruit Mania
  • Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts
    • chewing gum bubble gum bubble gum
    • Sour Cherry Gum (Limited)
    • Sour Apple Gum (Limited)
      breath mints
      chewing gum gum
    • Clove gum
    • Fruit*a*Burst gum
    • Mint*a*Burst gum
    • Sparkies

    Australia Edit

    Cadbury's products were first imported into Australia as early as 1853 when 3 cases of Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate were advertised for sale in Adelaide. [90] Cadbury's first overseas order in 1881 was made for the Australian market. In 1919, as part of its plans to expand internationally, the company decided to build a factory in Australia. In 1920 Claremont, Tasmania was chosen for the location because of its close proximity to the city of Hobart, good source of inexpensive hydro-electricity and plentiful supply of high-quality fresh milk. The first products from the factory were sold in 1922. [91] The Claremont factory was modelled on Bournville, with its own village and sporting facilities. [92] [93] Cadbury operates three Australian factories two in Melbourne, Victoria (Ringwood and Scoresby), and one in Hobart, Tasmania (Claremont). Cadbury also operates a milk-processing plant in Cooee, Tasmania. Claremont factory was once a popular tourist attraction and operated daily tours however, the factory ceased running full tours mid-2008, citing health and safety reasons. [94] Cadbury has been upgrading its manufacturing facility at Claremont, Tasmania, Australia, since 2001. [95]

    On 27 February 2009, the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury Schweppes in Australia were formally separated and the beverages business began operating as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd. In April 2009, Schweppes Australia was acquired by Asahi Breweries. [96] In late June 2012, Cadbury introduced Marvellous Creations a new chocolate range with three flavours – Peanut Toffee Cookie, Jelly Crunchie Bits or Jelly Popping Candy Beanies covered in Dairy Milk Chocolate. [97]

    In 2015 the Australian Cadbury factory, located in Hobart, reduced its work force by 80 [98] and in 2017 closed its visitor's centre. [99] In August 2017 Cadbury announced that 50 workers will be shed from its Hobart factory. [100] Within Australia there is debate regarding halal certification. Many of Cadbury's products are halal certified. [101] This certification has generated controversy, especially from One Nation politician Pauline Hanson. [102] [103]

    New Zealand Edit

    Cadbury had also operated a factory in Dunedin in New Zealand's South Island until its closure in March 2018. In 1930, Cadbury partnered with local confectionery businessman Richard Hudson, who owned a chocolate, confectionery, biscuit factory on Castle Street. Hudson's factory was rebranded as Cadbury Hudson and later became known as the Cadbury Confectionery. [104] [105] [106] Cadbury later established a second factory in Auckland in the North Island. In 2003, Cadbury established a tourist attraction on the premises of the Dunedin factory known as Cadbury World, which featured a large chocolate waterfall. In 2007, Cadbury closed down its Auckland factory, leading to the loss of 200 jobs. In 2009, the Cadbury Dunedin factory attracted criticism from consumers and local environmentalists when it replaced cocoa butter with palm oil. In response, the company backtracked but still retained palm oil as a filling in some ingredients. Over the next several years, Cadbury began downsizing its products, including trimming chocolate blocks in 2015. [107]

    On 16 February 2017, it was reported that Cadbury would be closing its factory in Dunedin, New Zealand by March 2018. This is estimated to lead to the loss of 350 jobs. Amanda Banfield, Mondelez's vice-president for Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, clarified that the closure was done due to Mondelez's decision to shift chocolate manufacturing to Cadbury's Australian factories. [105] [108] [109] However, Mondelez has also confirmed that Dunedin's Cadbury World tourist attraction would remain open due to its popularity with tourists. [110]

    Following four weeks of consultations with local Cadbury employees, the Mayor of Dunedin Dave Cull, and local trade union representatives, Banfield confirmed that the closure would go ahead the following year due to the lack of viable options to continue production in New Zealand. She also confirmed that Cadbury would offer a redundancy support package to staff and would also sponsor staff willing to move to Australia to work. Mondelez also confirmed that it was looking for a third-party manufacturer to continue making Cadbury's New Zealand brands Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate Fish and Buzz Bar. [111] In early June 2017, local city councillor Jim O'Malley and a group of volunteers launched a crowdfunding campaign to keep the Dunedin factory running on a portion of the site. [112] They formed a group called Dunedin Manufacturing Holdings (DMH). Despite generating NZ$6 million in funds, DMH abandoned its bid on 22 June due to Mondelez's stringent production and supply requirements and difficulties in acquiring manpower and machinery. Mondelez has also indicated that it is negotiating with two local chocolate companies to ensure the production of iconic local brands such as Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate Fish, Buzz Bars, and Pinky Bars in New Zealand. [113] Following the failure of DMH's bid, spokesperson O'Malley announced on 12 September that his group would launch a new crowdfunding campaign to buy and expand local craft chocolate manufacturer OCHO (the Otago Chocolate Company). [114]

    On 17 October 2017, Cadbury announced that it would be shifting all production of its New Zealand brands to Australia after failing to find a local supplier. The termination of New Zealand production will take effect in March 2018. Mondelez's New Zealand country head James Kane confirmed the shift on the grounds that the production of Cadbury products would require certain technologies, production processes and skills that local New Zealand manufacturers lacked. [115] [116]

    On 4 May, it was reported that the Dunedin Cadbury World would be closing down after the Ministry of Health purchased the entire former Cadbury factory site to make way for a new public hospital. Mondelez area vice-president Banfield confirmed that Cadbury had sold the former factory site to the Ministry of Health for an undisclosed amount. [117] [118] [119]

    Canada Edit

    Cadbury's Canadian head office is located in Toronto. Cadbury Canada produce and import several products that are sold under the Cadbury and Maynards labels, including the following:

    • Cadbury
        (various flavours) as Wunderbar
    • Cadbury Coconut
    • Mr. Big
    • Flake
    • Creme Egg (also appear in a Tim Hortons doughnut)
    • Pep
    • Cadbury Canada is now part of Mondelez Canada and products are featured on the Snackworks website.

      India Edit

      In 1948, Cadbury India began its operations in India by importing chocolates. On 19 July 1948, Cadbury was incorporated in India. It now has manufacturing facilities in Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Hyderabad, Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and sales offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The corporate head office is in Mumbai. The head office is presently situated at Pedder Road, Mumbai, under the name of "Cadbury House". This monumental structure at Pedder Road has been a landmark for the citizens of Mumbai since its creation. Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, Cadbury has worked with the Kerala Agricultural University to undertake cocoa research. [121] [122]

      Currently, Cadbury India operates in five categories – Chocolate confectionery, Beverages, Biscuits, Gum and Candy. Its products include Cadbury Dairy Milk, Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville, Temptations, Perk, Eclairs, Bournvita, Celebrations, Gems, Bubbaloo, Cadbury Dairy Milk Shots, Toblerone, Halls, Bilkul, Tang, and Oreo. [123] [124]

      It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a market share of over 70%. [125] On 21 April 2014, Cadbury India changed its name to Mondelez India Foods Limited. [126] In 2017, Cadbury/Mondelez agreed to pay a $13 million FCPA penalty for making illicit payments to government officials to obtain licences and approvals to build a factory in Baddi. [127] [128]

      Issues Edit

      In 2003, Businessworld in India reported there were ‘Insects found in Cadbury’s chocolates’. [129] In 2021, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) carried out raids in Haryana and Himachal on Cadbury India Ltd premises. [130] [131] CBI filed FIR against Cadbury for corruption in connection with obtaining Himachal factory licence. CBI said Cadbury allegedly conspired with central excise officials between 2009 to 2011 and availed excise benefits to the tune of Rs 241 crore for its new unit in Himachal Pradesh. [132]

      Malta Edit

      In 2012, Alf Mizzi & Sons Marketing (Ltd) took over the importation and distribution of Cadbury, as well as several other Mondelez brands. Most of the Cadbury products are imported directly from the UK. The advertising of the brand was taken over by Sloane Ltd., which proved to be highly successful in creating market specific commercials, reaching more of the Maltese population than ever through digital advertising.

      South Africa Edit

      Cadbury was introduced to South Africa in 1903 by the Cadbury brothers, Richard and George. [133] The brothers appointed a sales agent to sell their products to the locals. The brand's popularity grew such that in 1926, the South African arm of Cadbury was formed and plans were made to construct a local chocolate manufacturing plant.

      Cadbury broke ground with a chocolate plant in Port Elizabeth in 1930. By 1938, the first locally produced moulded Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate slabs were produced. The first slabs of chocolate produced were the Milk, Nut Milk, Milk Fruit, Nut Brazil, Fruit & Nut and Bournville variety of Cadbury products.

      In the 1950s, the Port Elizabeth factory was expanded to include a new laboratory in order to start producing new products, such as the Flake and Crunchie Bar (1960s). By the 1970s, the factory was expanded again to add a new Raw Materials Store and crumb silos. These have since become a local landmark. The same factory still produces some of the supply of Cadbury chocolate in South Africa. [133]

      In 2011, Kraft Foods, the company that then owned Cadbury, announced that it would be launching a fair-trade Dairy Milk chocolate bar on the South African market. The product had been available in other countries where Cadbury operated since 2009. The South African operation of Cadbury has a completely Africa-based supply chain, with cocoa beans bought in Ghana and the chocolate bars made in the factory at Port Elizabeth. [134]

      The Cadbury signature logo is derived from the signature of William Cadbury. [136] It was adopted as the worldwide logo in the 1970s. [136]

      Cadbury famously trademarked the colour purple for chocolates with registrations in 1995 [137] and 2004. [138] However, the validity of these trademarks is the matter of an ongoing legal dispute following objections by Nestlé. [139] [140]

      In 1997 Cadbury launched a range of Spice Girls-branded chocolate products at the height of their success. Products included individual chocolate bars and selection boxes for Christmas, 1997. In 1998 Cadbury produced Spice Girls' Easter Eggs. [141] [142]

      The 2007 Gorilla advertisement promoting Cadbury Dairy Milk – featuring Phil Collins "In the Air Tonight", won numerous awards, including Gold at the British Television Advertising Awards in 2008. [143] Four commercials for Cadbury products featured in the top 50 of Channel 4’s 2000 UK poll of the "100 Greatest Adverts". Cadbury Flake, featuring Flake Girl, was ranked 26th, Cadbury Dairy Milk Fruit & Nut, featuring the slogan 'Everyone's a fruit and nutcase' sung by comedian Frank Muir, ranked 36th, Fry's Turkish Delight, with the slogan 'Full of Eastern Promise' accompanied with model Jane Lumb, ranked 37th, and Cadbury Milk Tray (which since 1968 has been advertised by the 'Milk Tray Man', a tough James Bond–style figure who undertakes daunting 'raids' to surreptitiously deliver a box of Milk Tray chocolates to a lady), [144] the "Avalanche" advert where he races ahead of it to deliver the chocolates, ranked 48th. [145]

      Every year Cadbury also launches a Secret Santa campaign which features offline and online advertisements. The brand also tours the UK's major cities encouraging people to anonymously give their loved ones a free chocolate bar. [146] Cadbury has specifically designed booths for the occasion but in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic the campaign was done virtually. [147]

      The brand is famous for its immersive experiential marketing campaigns which include a Double Decker fun bus, Joy Generator machine and pop-up cafes. [148]

      In 2008, Todd Stitzer, Cadbury's CEO, was paid a £2,665,000 bonus. Combined with his annual salary of £985,000 and other payments of £448,000 this gives a total remuneration of over £4 million. [149]

      In July 2007, Cadbury Schweppes announced that it would be outsourcing its transactional accounting and order capture functions to Shared Business Services (SBS) centres run by a company called Genpact (a businesses services provider) in India, China, and Romania. This was to affect all business units and be associated with US and UK functions being transferred to India by the end of 2007, with all units transferred by mid-2009. Depending on the success of this move, other accounting Human Resources functions may follow. This development is likely to lead to the loss of several hundred jobs worldwide, but also to several hundred jobs being created, at lower salaries commensurate with wages paid in developing countries. [150]

      Major chocolate brands produced by Cadbury include the bars Dairy Milk, Crunchie, Caramel, Wispa, Boost, Picnic, Flake, Curly Wurly, Chomp, and Fudge chocolate Buttons the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray and the twist-wrapped chocolates Heroes which are most popular around holidays, such as Christmas and Halloween (Cadbury Goo Heads (similar to Creme Eggs) are released for Halloween). [151] [152]

      Creme Eggs are only sold between New Year's Day and Easter. Tony Bilborough from Cadbury told BBC Radio 5 Live: "There's something special about Creme Egg season. We long for it in those long, eggless days of summer and autumn." [153]

      As well as Cadbury's chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett's brands or products such as Liquorice Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Flumps, Mints, Black Jack chews, Trident gum, and Softmints. Global sales of Cadbury products amounted to £491M in the 52 weeks to 16 August 2014. [154]

      Notable product introductions include:

      • 1866: Cocoa Essence
      • 1875: Easter Eggs
      • 1897: Milk Chocolate and Fingers
      • 1905: Dairy Milk
      • 1908: Bournville
      • 1914: Fry's Turkish Delight
      • 1915: Milk Tray
      • 1920: Flake
      • 1923: Creme Egg (launched as Fry's)
      • 1926: Cadbury Dairy Milk Fruit & Nut
      • 1929: Crunchie (launched as Fry's)
      • 1938: Roses
      • 1948: Fudge
      • 1958: Picnic
      • 1960: Dairy Milk Buttons
      • 1965: Cadbury Eclairs
      • 1967: Aztec
      • 1970: Curly Wurly
      • 1974: Snack
      • 1976: Double Decker
      • 1976: Starbar
      • 1981: Wispa (relaunched 2007)
      • 1985: Boost
      • 1987: Twirl
      • 1992: Time Out
      • 1995: Wispa Gold (relaunched 2009 and 2011)
      • 1996: Fuse (promotional relaunched 2015)
      • 1999: Heroes
      • 2001: Brunch Bar, Dream and Flake
      • 2009: Dairy Milk Silk [155]
      • 2010: Dairy Milk Bliss
      • 2011: Big Race oreo
      • 2012: Marvellous Creations and Crispello
      • 2014: Pebbles
      • 2014: Bubbly
      • 2016: Cadbury Silk Oreo

      2006 salmonella scare Edit

      On 20 January 2006, Cadbury Schweppes detected a strain of the Salmonella Montevideo (SmvdX07) bacteria, affecting seven of its products. [156] [157] The contamination was caused by a leaking pipe, from which waste water dripped onto a chocolate crumb production line at the company's plant in Marlbrook, Herefordshire. [158] [159] It was not until around six months after the leak was detected that Cadbury Schweppes notified the Food Standards Agency, a delay which Cadbury Schweppes was unable to explain satisfactorily, and for which it was criticised. [156] [160] The Food Standards Agency ordered the company to recall more than a million chocolate bars. [161] In December 2006, the company announced that the cost of dealing with the incident reached £30 million. [162]

      In April 2007, Birmingham City Council announced that it would be prosecuting Cadbury Schweppes in relation to three alleged offences of breaching food safety legislation. At that time, the Health Protection Agency identified 37 people who had been infected with Salmonella Montevideo. [163] [158] One of the alleged victims had to be kept on a hospital isolation ward for five days after eating a Cadbury's caramel bar. [164] An investigation that was carried by Herefordshire Council led to a further six charges being brought. [162] The company pleaded guilty to all nine charges, [165] [166] and was fined one million pounds at Birmingham Crown Court—the sentencing of both cases was brought together. [167] Analysts have said the fine is not material to the group, with mitigating factors limiting the fine being that the company quickly admitted its guilt and said it had been mistaken that the infection did not pose a threat to health. [168]

      2007 recalls Edit

      On 10 February 2007, Cadbury recalled some of its Easter eggs due to a labelling error. The products were produced in a factory handling nuts, potential allergens, but this was not made clear on the packaging. Cadbury said the products were "perfectly safe" for people without nut allergies to eat. [169]

      On 14 September 2007, Cadbury Schweppes investigated a manufacturing error over allergy warning, recalling for the second time in two years thousands of chocolate bars. A printing mistake at Somerdale Factory resulted in the omission of tree nut allergy labels from 250g Dairy Milk Double Chocolate bars. [170]

      2008 melamine contamination in China Edit

      On 29 September 2008, Cadbury withdrew all of its 11 chocolate products made in its three Beijing factories, on suspicion of contamination with melamine. The recall affected the mainland China markets, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Australia. [171] Products recalled included Dark Chocolate, a number of products in the 'Dairy Milk' range and Chocolate Éclairs. [172]

      2014 pork traces in Malaysia Edit

      Cadbury recalled two chocolate products after it was tested positive for traces of pork DNA, namely Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut and Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast Almond. [173] The traces were found during a periodic check for non-halal ingredients in food products by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia which on 24 May 2014 said two of three samples of the company's products may contain pork traces. [174]

      On 2 June 2014, Malaysia's Department of Islamic Development (JAKIM) declared that the sample did not contain pig DNA, as claimed in earlier reports. This statement was made after new tests were conducted.

      JAKIM reportedly said in a statement that they tested 11 samples of Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut, Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast Almond and other products from the company's factory but none of them tested positive for pork. The investigation followed reports that unscheduled checks had shown that two chocolates produced by Mondelez International Inc., the parent company of Cadbury, violated Islamic law and led to a boycott of all its products in the country. [175]

      2017 "Easter" controversy Edit

      In 2017, the Church of England condemned the company and the National Trust for rebranding their annual "Easter Egg Trails" as "Cadbury Egg Hunts". [176] Prime Minister Theresa May called the rebranding "absolutely ridiculous" however, Cadbury dismissed the criticism, with a spokesperson saying, "it is clear to see that within our communications we visibly state the word Easter. It is included a number of times across promotional materials." [177] An ensuing controversy followed in Australia, where Cadbury was accused of removing the word 'Easter' from the packaging of its Easter eggs. Cadbury Australia rebutted that Easter was mentioned on "the back of pack", and that its eggs were obviously Easter eggs. [178]

      2019 "Cadbury Treasures" campaign Edit

      In the run-up to Easter 2019, Cadbury launched a "Treasures" promotion in the UK and Ireland that, as well as listing treasure exhibits in various museums, encouraged people to engage in illegal metal-detecting and digging at protected archaeological sites around the British Isles in search of further treasure. This prompted a highly critical reaction from archaeologists. [179]


      Packaging Edit

      Creme Eggs are usually eaten individually, but are also available in boxes with different numbers of eggs in different countries. The foil wrapping of the eggs was traditionally green, red, yellow and blue in the United Kingdom and Ireland, though green was removed and purple replaced blue early in the 21st century. [ citation needed ] In the United States, some green is incorporated into the design, which previously featured the product's mascot, the Creme Egg Chick. [ citation needed ] As of 2015 [update] , the packaging in Canada has been changed to a 34 g, purple, red and yellow soft plastic shell.

      Availability Edit

      Creme Eggs are available annually between 1 January and Easter Day. [7] [8] In the UK in the 1980s, Cadbury made Creme Eggs available year-round but sales dropped and they returned to seasonal availability. [9] In 2018, white chocolate versions of the Creme Eggs were made available. These eggs were not given a wrapper that clearly marked them as white chocolate eggs, and were mixed in with the normal Creme Eggs in the United Kingdom. [10] Individuals who discovered an egg would win money via a ticket that had a code printed on it inside of the wrapper. [10]

      Manufacture in New Zealand Edit

      Creme Eggs were manufactured in New Zealand at the Cadbury factory in Dunedin from 1983 to 2009. Cadbury in New Zealand and Australia went through a restructuring process, with most Cadbury products previously produced in New Zealand being manufactured instead at Cadbury factories in Australia. The Dunedin plant later received a $69 million upgrade to specialise in boxed products such as Cadbury Roses, and Creme Eggs were no longer produced there. The result of the changes meant that Creme Eggs were instead imported from the United Kingdom. The change has also seen the range of Creme Eggs available for sale decreased. [1] The size also dropped from 40 g to 39 g in this time. The response from New Zealanders was not positive, with complaints including the filling not being as runny as the New Zealand version. [11]

      Manufacturing process Edit

      Cadbury Creme Eggs are manufactured as two half-eggs synthesised from chocolate that is subsequently formed into to two half shells, each of which is filled with a white fondant, then topped with a smaller amount of yellow fondant, with the egg being filled in such a way that the fondant colours mimic egg yolk and egg white. Both halves are then quickly joined together and cooled, the chocolate-like substance bonding together in the process. The solid eggs are removed from the moulds and wrapped in foil. [12] The filling is formed of inverted sugar syrup, produced by processing the fondant with invertase. [13] [14]

      In 2015, the traditional Dairy Milk shell of the eggs was replaced with a cocoa-based shell. [15]

      Varieties Edit

      Cadbury has introduced many variants to the original Creme Egg, including:

      • Border Creme Eggs, the first variant of Creme Egg to be produced, were wrapped in various colours of tartan foil and contained chocolate fondant. Introduced as "Fry's Border Creme Eggs" in 1970, they were rebranded as "Cadbury Border Creme Eggs" in 1974 and discontinued in 1981.
      • Mini Creme Eggs (bite-sized Creme Eggs) Eggs (chocolate egg with a caramel filling), launched in 1994 [16] Egg (Canadian market only)
      • Mini Caramel Eggs (bite-sized Caramel Eggs)
      • Chocolate Creme Eggs (chocolate fondant filling), introduced in 1999
      • Orange Creme Eggs (Creme Eggs with a hint of orange flavour)
      • 'Berry' Creme Eggs (magenta wrapper and pink fondant, sold circa 1987 in Australia)
      • Mint Creme Eggs (green "yolk" and mint flavour chocolate)
      • Dairy Milk with Creme Egg bars
      • Creme Egg Fondant in a narrow cardboard tube (limited edition)
      • Creme Egg ice cream with a fondant sauce in milk chocolate
      • Dream Eggs, a New Zealand-exclusive white chocolate egg with a white chocolate fondant filling. Discontinued in 2010. [1]
      • Cadbury McFlurry (British, Irish, Canadian and Australian McDonald's only) a McFlurry soft serve mix with a Creme Egg & chocolate filling. In the UK, it is currently released as part of McDonald's' Monopoly promotions. (Britain, Ireland, Australia and Canada) Available all year round. It was introduced to Australia in 2010, but was quickly discontinued.
      • Holiday Ornament Creme Egg
      • Mad About Chocolate Egg (Australia and New Zealand). Purple wrapper, milk chocolate with chocolate fudge filling. Discontinued in 2010. [1]
      • Creme Egg Pots Of Joy – melted Cadbury milk chocolate with a fondant layer
      • Screme Egg Pots Of Joy – melted Cadbury milk chocolate but with a layer of Screme Egg fondant
      • Creme Egg Layers Of Joy – A layered sharing dessert with Cadbury milk chocolate, chocolate mousse, chocolate chip cookie and fondant dessert with a creamy topping.
      • Peppermint Egg (New Zealand). Discontinued in 2010. [1]
      • Giant Creme Eggs, a thick chocolate shell with white and caramel fondant filling. Manufactured in North America. Discontinued in 2006.
      • Creme Egg Splats – fried egg shaped pieces of milk chocolate filled with fondant.
      • Screme Egg – traditional milk chocolate shell with a white and green fondant center - available for Halloween [17]
      • Screme Egg Minis – Mini version of the Screme Egg - available for Halloween [18] Egg (Canada). Introduced at the start of 2015. Filled with a fudge creme centre. Cream Egg (Canada). Introduced in 2016. Filled with a white cream centre containing Oreo cookie crumbs.
      • Ghost Egg – Same as normal Creme Egg, but without the "yolk".
      • White Chocolate Creme Egg – Creme Egg, but with white chocolate replacing the milk chocolate. Released in 2018 as part of a UK promotion. [19]
      • Golden Creme Egg – Creme Egg, but with golden-coloured chocolate. Released in 2021 as part of the 50th Anniversary of the product under Cadbury's ownership.
      • Jaffa Egg – Manufactured in New Zealand, Dark chocolate with orange filling
      • Marble Egg – Manufactured in New Zealand, Dairy Milk and Dream Chocolate swirled together
      • Caramilk Egg – Manufactured in New Zealand, a mixture of caramel and white chocolate with a creamy centre of the same flavour. Egg – Manufactured in Canada, Introduced in 2017. Filled with a chocolate chip cookie dough centre.

      Changes to product Edit

      During an interview in a 2007 episode of Late Night with Conan O'Brien, actor B. J. Novak drew attention to the fact that American market Cadbury Creme Eggs had decreased in size, despite the official Cadbury website stating otherwise. [20] American Creme Eggs at the time weighed 34 g and contained 150 kcal. [21] Before 2006, the eggs marketed by Hershey were identical to the UK version, weighing 39 g and containing 170 kcal. [22] [23] The foil wrapper from a 2021 egg bought in the UK states 40g but does not mention calorific content.

      In 2015, the British Cadbury company under the American Mondelēz International conglomerate announced that it had changed the formula of the Cadbury Creme Egg by replacing its Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate with "standard cocoa mix chocolate". It had also reduced the packaging from 6 eggs to 5 with a less than proportionate decrease in price. [24] [25] [26] This resulted in a large number of complaints from consumers. [27] Analysts at IRI found that Cadbury lost more than $12 million in Creme Egg sales in the UK. [28]

      The Creme Egg has been marketed in the UK and Ireland with the question "How do you eat yours?" and in New Zealand with the slogan "Don't get caught with egg on your face". Australia and New Zealand have also used a variation of the UK question, using the slogan "How do you do it?" Over the years, there have been several major Cadbury's Creme Egg campaigns.

      • c 1970s: "Shopkeeper" campaign in which a boy asks for 6000 Cadbury Creme Eggs.
      • "Irresistibly" campaign showing characters prepared to do something unusual for a Creme Egg, similar to the "What would you do for a Klondike bar?" campaign .
      • Early 1980s: "Can't Resist Them."
      • 1985: The "How Do You Eat Yours?" campaign begins.
      • Mid 80's-Present: "Nobunny Knows Easter Better than Cadbury"
      • 1985–1996: "Don't get caught with egg on your face" [29]
      • 1990–1993: The first television campaign to use the "How Do You Eat Yours?" theme, featuring the zodiac signs.
      • 1994–1996: Spitting Image characters continued "How Do You Eat Yours?"
      • 1997–1999: Matt Lucas, with the catchphrase "I've seen the future, and it's egg shaped!"
      • 2000–2003: The "Pointing Finger"
      • 2004: The "Roadshow" finger
      • 2005: "Licky, Sticky, Happy"
      • 2006–2007: "Eat It Your Way"
      • 2008–2009: "Here Today, Goo Tomorrow"
      • 2008–2009: "Unleash the Goo"
      • 2009: "Release the Goo"
      • 2010: "You'll Miss Me When I'm Gone"
      • 2011: "Goo Dares Wins"
      • 2011: "Get Your Goo On!"
      • 2012: "Gooing For Gold"
      • 2012: "It's Goo Time"
      • 2013–2016: "Have a fling with a Creme Egg"
      • 2017–2019: "It's Hunting Season" [citation needed]
      • 2020–Present: "Creme Egg Eatertainment"
      • 2021: "50 Goolden Years"

      In North America, Creme Eggs are advertised on television with a small white rabbit called the Cadbury Bunny (alluding to the Easter Bunny) which clucks like a chicken. Other animals dressed with bunny ears have also been used in the television ads, and in 2021, out of over 12,000 submissions in the Hershey Company's third annual tryouts, an Australian tree frog named Betty was named the newest Cadbury Bunny. [30] Ads for caramel eggs use a larger gold-coloured rabbit which also clucks, and chocolate eggs use a large brown rabbit which clucks in a deep voice. The advertisements use the slogan "Nobunny knows Easter better than him", spoken by TV personality Mason Adams. The adverts have continued to air nearly unchanged into the high definition era, though currently the ad image is slightly zoomed to fill the screen. The majority of rabbits used in the Cadbury commercials are Flemish Giants. [ citation needed ]

      In the UK, around the year 2000, selected stores were provided standalone paperboard cutouts of something resembling a "love tester". The shopper would press a button in the centre and a "spinner" (a series of LED lights) would select at random a way of eating the Creme Egg, e.g. "with chips". These were withdrawn within a year. There are also the "Creme Egg Cars" which are, as the name suggest, ovular vehicles painted to look like Creme Eggs. They are driven to various places to advertise the eggs but are based mainly at the Cadbury factory in Bournville. Five "Creme Egg Cars" were built from Bedford Rascal chassis. The headlights are taken from a Citroën 2CV. [31]

      For the 2009 season, advertising in the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada consisted of stopmotion adverts in the "Here Today, Goo Tomorrow" campaign which comprised a Creme Egg stripping itself of its wrapper and then breaking its own shell, usually with household appliances and equipment, while making various 'goo' sounds, and a 'relieved' noise when finally able to break its shell. The Cadbury's Creme Egg website featured games where the player had to prevent the egg from finding a way to release its goo.

      A similar advertising campaign in 2010 featured animated Creme Eggs destroying themselves in large numbers, such as gathering together at a cinema before bombarding into each other to release all of the eggs' goo, and another which featured eggs being destroyed by mouse traps.

      Olympic Games Edit

      In 2012, Cadbury parodied the Olympic Games by using Creme Eggs instead of athletes. The first advert was 31 seconds long and consists of an Opening Ceremony, performed by stripped and packed Creme Eggs. Each other advert contained a Creme Egg trying to ‘release the goo’ whilst in an Olympic event. An online game was created by Cadbury, so the public could play the ‘Goo Games’. Six events were available to play and each of them was shown as a cartoon sketch. It took place between 1 January to 4 April 2012. [ citation needed ]

      Creme Egg Café Edit

      In 2016, Cadbury opened a pop-up café titled "Crème de la Creme Egg Café" in London. [32] Tickets for the café sold out within an hour of being published online. [33] The café on Greek Street, Soho, was open every Friday, Saturday and Sunday from 22 January to 6 March 2016. [ citation needed ]

      Creme Egg Camp Edit

      In 2018, Cadbury opened a pop-up camp. The camp in Last Days of Shoreditch, Old Street was open every Thursday to Sunday from 19 January, to 18 February 2018 [34]

      Cadbury Invents Chocolate That Does Not Melt

      The Daily Mail's Dana Golger explains the science behind the revolutionary "temperature-tolerant chocolate":

      The secret to the new bars is a change in the so-called ‘conching step,’ where a container filled with metal beads grinds the ingredients, which usually include cocoa butter, vegetable oils, milk and sugar.

      Cadbury has developed a way of breaking down sugar particles into smaller pieces, reducing how much fat covers them and making the bar more resistant to heat.

      The special chocolates will only be sold in countries where temperatures regularly hit the triple digits like in India or Brazil.

      "Production of temperature tolerant chocolate would allow production of chocolate-containing product more suitable for hot climates, particularly in less economically developed countries where the supply chain is ill-equipped to handle significant temperature / humidity fluctuations and where product quality is compromised," the baking giant wrote in an official patent application.

      This doesn't seem like a huge loss to American consumers. Despite the chocolate's heat-resistant powers, we hear the product doesn't taste as good as the standard stuff.

      A History of Cadbury: Britain’s Favorite Chocolate

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      John Cadbury began his business career in 1824 as a shop in Birmingham selling coffee, tea, and chocolate. He and his brother soon became manufacturers and adopted the Dutch method of extracting cocoa powder from raw beans. The business expanded under John’s son, George, who put into practice his Quaker beliefs by creating a model community and factory – Bournville – designed to provide improved living and working conditions for his employees. Its progressive policies became a model for other model towns. The spectrum of British chocolate treats, as well as powder for ‘hot cocoa,’ flowed from their factory in the early 20th century, and the products are still widely consumed today. The Bournville factory still exists, with other plants around the world. The Bournville model village is a highly desirable place to live, still controlled by the original Trust set up by George Cadbury. Today the company is completely separated from its family roots, as a subsidiary of Kraft Foods.

      Key Facts

      • Began in 1824 as a shop selling coffee, tea, and drinking chocolate
      • Moved to a model factory and village called Bournville
      • Socially progressive based on the family’s Quaker beliefs
      • Invented almost all the iconic British ‘candy bars’

      Despite its prominence in the English chocolate market today, Cadbury was a ‘Johnny-come-lately’ in the world of drinking and eating chocolate. In a few decades of the 17th century, all the major non-alcoholic drinks of today arrived in Britain. Coffee was first, followed by drinking chocolate, and simultaneously, tea. Cocoa beans first came to Europe from the New World in 1585. It wasn’t long before the drink was a sign of refinement among the wealthy in their palaces. It was so valuable that it was included in the dowries of the Spanish Royal Families.

      Only a little later, in 1657, an unnamed Frenchman opened the first chocolate shop in Queen’s Head Alley, off Bishopsgate Street in London. He offered samples, lessons, and of course was happy to sell his excellent West India drink. This was just five years after the arrival of coffee, which had already taken off, and chocolate was soon added to the menus of the coffee houses. Tea was first sold in London in the same year as the arrival of chocolate. At that time it was only available as a thick, oily paste made from the ground cocoa beans, sweetened, sometimes flavored with spices, including chili, and mixed with hot water. The beans sold for 15 shillings a pound, equivalent to £100 today.

      When Hans Sloane, who was president of the Royal College of Physicians, when to Jamaica in 1687, he tried chocolate and described it as nauseous. There were numerous recipes for drinking chocolate in circulation at the time, but his recipe mixing it with milk proved popular, even if there were other ‘milk chocolate’ recipes already in existence. In the 1750s a grocer in Soho, Nicholas Sanders, was selling “Sir Hans Sloane’s Milk Chocolate” for medicinal purposes, making it the first brand-name chocolate.

      Which lands us very neatly on the doorstep of a shop on Bull Street, Birmingham, there, in 1824, John Cadbury began to sell coffee, tea, and drinking chocolate. Even then, almost 65 years after Mr. Sanders product first appeared, Cadbury was selling tins of drinking chocolate advertised as based on Sloane’s original recipe.

      Shortly after their store opened, the processing of chocolate underwent a revolution. In 1828 Coenraad Johannes van Houten, a Dutchman, invented a press that would remove the oily cocoa butter from the crushed seeds, leaving behind a de-fatted chocolate powder. This mixed much more easily with milk or water, making home consumption simpler and leading to the sale of ‘cocoa,’ as the English still call it. Not only that, by adding back just some of the cocoa butter, a solid could be made, creating chocolate as we know it today, and making it possible to make chocolate bars.

      In 1831 John Cadbury moved from retailer to manufacturer, creating a factory in Bridge Street, Birmingham and producing a range of cocoa and drinking chocolate products. In 1847 he partnered with his brother Benjamin, and they became “Cadbury Brothers.” The Cadbury family were Quakers, and as such could not, at that time, study law or medicine, or join the military, which might have been more attractive options to a wealthy family than the competitive world of business. So it is perhaps not surprising that John’s son, Richard Barrow Cadbury, took over the retail business in 1850 so that John and Benjamin could focus completely on manufacturing. The brothers expanded their Bridge Street factory, opened an outlet in London, and in 1854 they received the coveted Royal Warrant to supply chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria.

      The business did not seem to prosper very greatly, and may even have declined, so in 1860 the brothers dissolved their partnership. John was 59 by then, and when his second wife died the following year, he retired altogether. His sons Richard and George took over the business, and in 1879 they moved everything to Bournbrook Hall, a Georgian mansion between the towns of King’s Norton and Northfield, in Worcestershire. The site had been carefully chosen to be in a cleaner, more rural area. Practically speaking it was well supplied for transport by the newly-opened Stirchley Street Station on the Birmingham West Suburban Railway, as well as within easy access of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, which they used to bring cocoa to the new factory.

      This period in the 19th century was blighted by the worst consequences of the rapid untrammeled expansion of Industrial Capitalism. Millions may have been freed from the drudgery of farm labor, but it has only been replaced by harsh labor in Blake’s Dark, Satanic Mills. Housing was primitive, cramped and unsanitary, diets were poor, disease was rampant, and neither the industrial nouveau riche or the landed gentry and nobility were interested in social change that might undermine their wealth and privilege. It was left to socialists and fundamental Christians like the Quakers to work for improvements in society, and they did it by political action and direct leadership.

      As Quakers, the Cadburys felt both a moral obligation and a religious imperative to treat their workers differently. Not only were the factory staff treated with great respect and paid relatively high wages, the working conditions were exceptional, there was a pension scheme and worker-management committees, and even a staff medical service. Such conditions would only arise in other places after lengthy battles between determined unions and intransigent owners.

      In 1893 George Cadbury purchased 120 acres close to the factory and built, from his own wealth, a model village – Bournville – which in his words would alleviate the evils of modern, more cramped living conditions. Within a few years, guided by the company architect William Alexander Harvey, the estate had grown to 313 cottages and houses on 330 acres. Expansion continued up until WWI, and some further housing was even built after that. The houses were built in the fashionable ‘Arts & Crafts’ style, which was a social statement in itself, considering the socialism of its founder, William Morris. They had large gardens and up-to-date interiors, and they were to become a touchstone for other model villages that were subsequently developed around Britain.

      To encourage healthy living, playing fields were built for football and hockey, and in 1924 Rowheath Pavilion was erected to Cadbury’s specifications. It included changing rooms, bowling greens, a fishing lake, and an outdoor swimming pool. The water came from a pure mineral spring on the site. Membership was entirely free to all staff at the Cadbury factory. In 1900, planning and management of the estate was put into the hands of the fully-independent Bournville Village Trust, still operating today.

      Perhaps there was a certain air of benevolent paternalism to the Bournville project. If there was, it was most apparent in the absence of that great British institution, pubs. As a Quaker, Cadbury promoted temperance, and even today there is no pub in the suburb, because of a strict covenant he imposed, although there is a bar for members in the Rowheath Pavilion.

      During all this period the company business grew. In 1897, they produced the first milk chocolate bar, a new style developed in Switzerland. The early 20th century saw the development of almost all of their most iconic products. Cadbury’s Dairy Milk, in its instantly-recognizable purple wrapper, was launched in 1905, and with a higher milk content, it became their best-selling product by 1914. Bournville Cocoa, in the orange tin, was released in 1906. By 1910, they surpassed their rival Fry, and when WWI began, they were exporting 40% of their sales, chiefly to British outposts in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.

      In 1915, they expanded from bars to filled chocolates, launching Cadbury’s Milk Tray. During WWI 2,000 workers joined the Army (although Quakers were pacifists), and the company sent clothing, books and of course chocolate to them and other soldiers as well. As the war ended their first overseas plant, in Hobart, Tasmania, opened. 1919 saw a merger with their rival J. S. Fry & Sons, bringing Fry’s Chocolate Cream and the schoolboy’s delight Fry’s Turkish Delight into the Cadbury fold.

      New products continued to flow from the factories, with Cadbury’s Flake in 1920, Cream-filled Eggs in 1923, the Fruit and Nut bar in 1928, and the Crunchie bar in 1929. 1933 saw the arrival of Whole Nut Chocolate Bars, and a permanent place for Cadbury’s on the palates of the English was assured. Chocolate was no longer a luxury product, and 90% of the population could afford to eat it regularly.

      With chocolate declared an ‘essential food’ in WWII, the company was placed under government supervision, and rationing did not end until 1950, due to sugar shortages. Parts of the Bournville factory produced non-lethal war equipment, and the playing fields were plowed up for food production. In the post-war years, manufacturing expanded both at home and abroad, with factories in Bombay and a major acquisition into the Australian market.

      In 1969, they merged with Schweppes, ending the links with the Quaker Cadbury family, and turning the company into a hard-nosed capitalist enterprise. New products followed, most notably the Caramel bar, and with their British business dented by competition from Rowntree, they reduced their product range from 78 to 33. They took 10% of the US chocolate market by their acquisition of Peter Paul. In 2010, following an attempted hostile takeover, Cadbury, now minus the apostrophe ‘s,’ was bought by Kraft Foods for £11.5 billion. The takeover was viewed badly by the British public, and by Cadbury staff, and resignations and closures followed swiftly. Today Cadbury is a subsidiary of Mondelēz International, Kraft’s confectionery division.

      Cadbury develops chocolate that won't melt at high temperatures

      One of life’s less pleasant surprises is discovering the chocolate bar that you forgot you had in your pocket on a hot day. Two scientists working at Cadbury’s research and development plant in Bourneville, U.K., are fighting that gooey surprise with the invention of chocolate that remains solid even when exposed to temperatures of 40º C (104º F) for more than three hours. Aimed at tropical markets, the “temperature tolerant chocolate” is described in a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) patent application.

      Chocolate tastes great, in part, because the cocoa butter and other fats in it melt quickly and smoothly in the mouth. Chocolate softens at about 28ºC (82ºF) and melts at 32 to 35ºC. (90 to 95ºF). That makes for a nice treat, but it also makes chocolate hard to transport and store – especially in tropical regions where climate-controlled vehicles and warehouses are scarce.

      This isn't simply a matter of being able to have chocolate that doesn't turn into a mess in your glove box. Chocolate is very temperature sensitive and heat can easily cause it to sag and deform and the fats and sugars can “bloom” out if it's improperly stored, resulting in an unappetizing appearance.

      Temperature tolerant chocolate isn't new. In fact, it’s been around since the 1930s. Just before World War II, the U.S. military commissioned companies, most notably Hershey’s, to develop and manufacture chocolate bars for soldiers that could be carried in a pocket or stored at tropical temperatures. Over the years, millions of these were issued as regular or emergency rations and some even went to the Moon on Apollo 15. The most recent version was the “Congo Bar” carried by U.S. forces during the Gulf War.

      The problem was that making a chocolate bar that wouldn't melt wasn't hard. What was hard was to make one that people still wanted to eat. The military bars didn't melt and they were nutritious, but they were difficult to eat and they didn't taste very good. That’s because the usual way to keep chocolate from melting was to either add fillers like oat flour and swap the cocoa butter for other fats, which made it taste like a candle, or adding water or glycerol to encourage sugar crystal formation, which made it gritty.

      Cadbury's approach is to modify part of the chocolate manufacturing process known as “conching.” Conching is a complex mixing process that causes a number of physical and chemical changes in the chocolate. It can take anywhere between 15 minutes to an entire day depending on the type and quality of the chocolate. The conching machine’s design depends on how much chocolate is being processed, the quality, and whether it's made in batches or by continuous flow, but it generally involves temperature-controlled troughs where the chocolate is constantly pushed about by rollers, rotors or louvres.

      In the conch, the chocolate undergoes a number of changes. Conching thoroughly mixes the chocolate, allowing the flavors to come out as it's aerated and volatiles and moisture are allowed to escape. As the chocolate is repeatedly pressed against the trough by the rollers or rotors, the cocoa butter and other fats coat the sugar particles in the mix.

      Cadbury chocolate bar (Photo: Evan-Amos)

      In conventional conching, the sugar particles are completely and evenly coated with fats so that they slip by one another easily, but Cadbury discovered that it could make chocolate more temperature tolerant by refining it after conching instead of just before.

      In testing, the temperature tolerant chocolate was heated to 40º C (104º F) for three hours, yet when pressed with a finger it didn't stick or deform. According to the Cadbury patent, the chocolate has a similar texture to Cadbury Dairy Milk and the company sees it being used in chocolate bars, biscuits and snacks in hot regions.